A non-linear wave is one of the fundamental objects of nature. They are inherent to aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, solid state physics and plasma physics, optics and field theory, chemistry reaction kinetics and population dynamics, nuclear physics and gravity. All non-linear waves can be divided into two parts: dispersive waves and dissipative ones. The history of investigation of these waves has been lasting about two centuries. In 1834 J. S. Russell discovered the extraordinary type of waves without the dispersive broadening. In 1965 N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal found that the Korteweg-de Vries equation has solutions of the solitary wave form. This solitary wave demonstrates the particle-like properties, i. e. , stability under propagation and the elastic interaction under collision of the solitary waves. These waves were named solitons. In succeeding years there has been a great deal of progress in understanding of soliton nature. Now solitons have become the primary components in many important problems of nonlinear wave dynamics. It should be noted that non-linear optics is the field, where all soliton features are exhibited to a great extent. This book had been designed as the tutorial to the theory of non-linear waves in optics. The first version was projected as the book covering all the problems in this field, both analytical and numerical methods, and results as well. However, it became evident in the process of work that this was not a real task.
This monograph presents theoretical and experimental studies of flows of elastic liquids. Falling into this category are particularly the melts and concentrated solutions of such flexible-chain polymers as polyethylene, polyisobutylene and polypropylene, all of which are widely used in polymer processing. These polydisperse polymers vary greatly, from batch to batch, in their mechanical properties and 20% variation in a property is believed to be good enough. l 7 All recent books - devoted to the rheology of polymers do not answer the question of which constitutive equations should be used for solving the fluid mechanic problems of polymer processing in the usual case of an appreciable nonlinear region of deformation where nonlinear effects of shear and extensional elasticity are very important. Viscoelastic constitut- ive equations cited commonly (see, e.g. Refs 5 and 6) do not describe simultaneously even the simplest cases of deformations, viz. simple shear and uniaxial extension. Moreover, some of them are internally inconsist- ent and sometimes display highly unstable behaviour in simple flows without any fundamental reasons. Even more respected molecular ap- free from these defects.
This GCSE Religious Studies book (with free Online Edition) covers Ethics 1 & 2 for the OCR B exams. It's full of clear revision notes on aspects of Christianity, Roman Catholic Christianity, Islam and Judaism and there are practice questions at the end of every section to check how much you've learned. There's a useful section at the back with loads of tips and example answers to help you do well in your exams, including in-depth advice for scoring top marks for spelling, punctuation and grammar. What's more, a free Online Edition of the whole book is included - perfect for revising on a PC, Mac or tablet device.